THE FACTS

The human body is designed to move.

For thousands of years, that’s exactly what humans did. In the mid-20th century, however, rapid technological advances (think: cars, TVs, computers, etc.) began chipping away at physical activity, and as technology did more of the heavy lifting, people became increasingly sedentary.

Fast forward to today; here’s where we are:

12 HOURS

the amount of time the average person is sitting (aka sedentary) a day

4th LEADING

risk factor for global mortality is physical inactivity

3.2 MILLION

deaths a year are related to physical inactivity

Whether it's time spent working (in the office, school or home), driving, eating or watching TV, the impacts our sedentary lifestyles, often referred to as "sitting disease," may be one of the most unanticipated health threats of our modern time.

Sitting Disease:

A term coined by the scientific community, commonly used when referring to metabolic syndrome and the ill-effects of an overly sedentary lifestyle.

Now that's the bad news. The good news is...

…by making simple lifestyle changes we can make big strides to lead healthier lives. Mounting medical research proves that if we choose to stand up, sit less and move more, we can experience a great number of attainable benefits to our health, our minds and our bodies

What You Need to Know

It’s a common misconception that exercise can compensate for too much sitting. Even if you engage in the doctor-recommended 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity per week, you are still subject to the negative impact of too much sitting.

Low intensity, ‘non-exercise’ activities like standing and walking are much more important than most realize. In fact, low level activities play a crucial metabolic role and account for more of our daily energy expenditure than moderate-to-high intensity activities.

Alternate between sitting and standing every 30 minutes for optimum health. Some of the research community (JustStand.org included!) are promoters of this sit-stand-switch philosophy.

THE BENEFITS

There are a great number of attainable benefits to our health, our minds and our bodies, if we simply choose to stand up, sit less and move more.

Health

Standing more can lower your risk of serious health issues ranging from cancer to early mortality.

Mind

Standing more can increase your energy and productivity levels, lower your stress and improve your mood.

Body

Standing more can boost your metabolism, tone muscles and even reduce common aches and pains.

SupportsBone Health

Bones, like muscles, require regular movement to maintain strength – low-level activity helps improve your bone health.

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SupportsBone Health

Bones, like muscles, require regular movement to maintain strength – low-level activity helps improve your bone health.


Weight-bearing activities that promote balance and good posture are beneficial for your bones1


Screen-based sedentary behaviors are negatively associated with bone health in youth2

6+ hours


Women can lose up to 1% of bone mass a year by sitting 6+ hours per day3

EnhancesBrain Power

Standing delivers more oxygen and nutrients to the brain through improved blood flow.

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EnhancesBrain Power

Standing delivers more oxygen and nutrients to the brain through improved blood flow.

50%


Those who maintain regular bouts of activity reduce risk of cognitive decline by 50%1


Physical activity enhances neurogenesis (the creation of new brain cells) in regions of the brain associated with critical thinking2


In the classroom
Studies show that movement strengthens learning and improves memory and retrieval3


In the office
Studies show movement is linked to improved concentration and greater productivity

BurnsCalories

When you're moving, fat-burning enzymes stay activated, burning far more calories than when you’re sitting. It can add up over time.

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BurnsCalories

When you're moving, fat-burning enzymes stay activated, burning far more calories than when you’re sitting. It can add up over time.

50 calories


Standing burns 50 calories more per hour than sitting1

5.2 lbs


Standing for an extra 30 minutes a day for a year can result in 5.2 lbs of weight loss2

30%


Burn 30% more calories standing than sitting3

Reduces risk ofCancer

Studies have linked prolonged sitting to a greater risk for colon, breast and endometrial cancers. Research has suggested that regular movement boosts natural antioxidants that kill cell-damaging - and potentially cancer-causing - free radicals.

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Reduces risk ofCancer

Studies have linked prolonged sitting to a greater risk for colon, breast and endometrial cancers. Research has suggested that regular movement boosts natural antioxidants that kill cell-damaging - and potentially cancer-causing - free radicals.

1-2 minutes


1-2 minute breaks from sitting each hour is enough to lower risk factors of cancer1

40%


Those who are physically active have a 40% decrease in cancer mortality2

92k


92,000 cases of breast and colon cancer in the US each year are linked to a lack of physical activity1

65%


In women, sitting 6+ hours a day has been linked to a 65% greater risk of multiple myeloma3

21-25%


Physical activity is estimated to be responsible for 21-25% of breast and colon cancers4

Reduces risk ofCardiovascular Disease

Reducing sedentary time is linked to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and death due to heart attack.

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Reduces risk ofCardiovascular Disease

Reducing sedentary time is linked to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and death due to heart attack.

45%


Those who are active have a 45% lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease1

64%


Men who report 23+ hours a week of sedentary activity (3 hours per day) have a greater risk of dying from cardiovascular disease2

8+ hours


Doubled risk of cardiovascular disease if you sit 8+ hours a day3

1/2 risk


1/2 risk of heart attack in women who are physically active 3+ hours per week4

30%


30% of ischemic heart disease cases are associated with sedentary lifestyles5

IncreasesCirculation

Blood circulation is crucial to good health, but sitting can impede blood flow, affecting every system of the body.

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IncreasesCirculation

Blood circulation is crucial to good health, but sitting can impede blood flow, affecting every system of the body.

10 minutes


Within 10 minutes, circulation can be negatively impacted from sitting1


Prolonged sitting leads to poor circulation, which is strongly linked to varicose veins and blood clots2

70%


Sedentary behavior for 2.5-5 hours a day increased the risk of fatal blood clots by 70%3

SupportsDiabetes

As the rate of those affected with Type 2 diabetes continues to increase, breaking up sedentary time can aid in managing insulin levels and reducing that risk, as there is a significant correlation between excessive sitting and diabetes.

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SupportsDiabetes

As the rate of those affected with Type 2 diabetes continues to increase, breaking up sedentary time can aid in managing insulin levels and reducing that risk, as there is a significant correlation between excessive sitting and diabetes.


Interrupting sitting time can be effective in lowering postprandial glucose and insulin levels1

27%


27% of diabetes is caused by physical inactivity2

1 hour


1 hour of sitting may increase diabetes risk by a fifth3

2x


A sedentary lifestyle can double your risk of diabetes4

Reduces risk ofEarly Mortality

Research has found strong links between sedentary behavior and a variety of serious health problems, which increase the risk of early mortality.

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Reduces risk ofEarly Mortality

Research has found strong links between sedentary behavior and a variety of serious health problems, which increase the risk of early mortality.

4th leading


Physical inactivity is the fourth-leading risk factor for death1

30%


Replacing 1 hour of sitting with low-level activity - like walking - can reduce mortality by 30%2

22 minutes


Every hour you sit, you can slash your life expectancy by nearly 22 minutes3

50%


Sitting for 4+ hours per day results in a 50% increased greater risk of death4

IncreasesEnergy

Standing is a simple but underrated remedy to increase alertness and receive a natural jolt of energy.

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IncreasesEnergy

Standing is a simple but underrated remedy to increase alertness and receive a natural jolt of energy.

Every hour


Engaging in short bouts of activity every hour has been shown to increase energy1

87%


87% of employees reported increased energy levels after using a standing desk2

37%


37% of employees reported high levels of energy in the middle of the day when incorporating small and frequent movements3

Increases ability toFocus & Productivity

Standing on the job promotes a greater mental awareness, which leads to far greater productivity and improved concentration. Low-level movement can also reduce pain and discomfort, allowing people to better focus.

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Increases ability toFocus & Productivity

Standing on the job promotes a greater mental awareness, which leads to far greater productivity and improved concentration. Low-level movement can also reduce pain and discomfort, allowing people to better focus.

10 minutes


10 minutes of movement is all it takes to increase mental focus1

71%


71% of employees reported feeling more focused after reducing sitting time by 1 hour2

46%


When using a standing desk, productivity increases by up to 46%3

SupportsHeart Health

Subtle movement - even standing - breaks up prolonged sitting and promotes higher HDL (“good” cholesterol) and lower LDL (“bad cholesterol”) which in turn can improve blood pressure and lower the risk of heart attack.

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SupportsHeart Health

Subtle movement - even standing - breaks up prolonged sitting and promotes higher HDL (“good” cholesterol) and lower LDL (“bad cholesterol”) which in turn can improve blood pressure and lower the risk of heart attack.


Muscles burn less fat and blood flows more slowly during prolonged sitting, which leads to clogged arteries and fatty liver disease

33%


After 3 hours of uninterrupted sitting, young girls experience 33% reduced vascular function1


Increases in sedentary behavior have been associated with increased blood pressure among children, teenagers and adults2

2 hours


Every 2 hours of sitting time replaced with standing saw 11% lower triglyceride levels and 6% lower total HDL-cholesterol ratio3

BoostsMetabolism

Alternating between sitting and standing increases the enzymes needed to metabolize food.

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BoostsMetabolism

Alternating between sitting and standing increases the enzymes needed to metabolize food.

20 minutes


20 minutes in any fixed position starts to inhibit the metabolism1

4 hours


4 hours of inactivity causes a near shut-down of an enzyme that controls fat and cholesterol metabolism2

90%


When you sit, the production of enzymes that help you break down fat drops by 90%3

ImprovesMood State

Moving muscles pumps fresh blood and oxygen to the brain, which releases mood enhancing chemicals.

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ImprovesMood State

Moving muscles pumps fresh blood and oxygen to the brain, which releases mood enhancing chemicals.

100%


Of workers reported positive effects on mood states after reducing sitting time2

7 weeks


Employees reported improved mood states after using a sit-stand desk for 7 weeks1


Incorporating movement has shown to enhance employee enthusiasm and job satisfaction2


Incorporating movement in the classroom has been shown to enhance learner motivation and morale3

6+ hours


Sitting for 6+ hours during the workday puts you at a higher risk for anxiety and depression4

TonesMuscles

Standing enlists large muscle groups along with the vestibular system which controls balance. Unused, weak muscles leave your joints unstable and prone to injury and chronic pain.

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TonesMuscles

Standing enlists large muscle groups along with the vestibular system which controls balance. Unused, weak muscles leave your joints unstable and prone to injury and chronic pain.


When standing, abdominal muscles are tensed and tightened, but when sitting, those muscles go unused, ultimately leading to a weak mid-section


Sitting makes hips very tight, which in turn, can affect posture, balance and make it harder to move freely


The glute muscles weaken from lack of use (referred to as dormant butt syndrome) and become soft and undefined from lack of use 1

Reduces risk ofOsteoporosis

People who are more active have a lower risk of osteoporosis than those who are more sedentary.

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Reduces risk ofOsteoporosis

People who are more active have a lower risk of osteoporosis than those who are more sedentary.


Scientists partly attribute the recent surge in cases of osteoporosis to lack of activity1


Bone loss progresses much faster in people who are physically inactive2


People who spend a lot of time sitting have a higher risk of osteoporosis than those who are more active3

Aids InPain Relief

Our bodies were made to stand, so maintaining the seated position is physically stressful. This, in turn, can cause body pain, herniated discs, damaged nerves, degenerated joints and dementia.

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Aids InPain Relief

Our bodies were made to stand, so maintaining the seated position is physically stressful. This, in turn, can cause body pain, herniated discs, damaged nerves, degenerated joints and dementia.

54%


54% of workers reported reduced upper back and neck pain when sitting time was decreased1

78%


78% of workers with chronic low back pain reported a pain-free day2

#1 cause


Lower back pain is #1 cause of job related disability and a top risk factor for absenteeism3

$85 billion


Due to low back pain associated with sedentary behavior, $85 billion is lost a year in healthcare, lost income and productivity costs2

ImprovesPosture

Standing (with proper posture!) puts the spine into a more naturally aligned position.

READ MORE

ImprovesPosture

Standing (with proper posture!) puts the spine into a more naturally aligned position.


Craning your neck forward can strain the cervical vertebrae and lead to damage that is difficult to repair1

20 minutes


20 minutes is all it takes before bad posture and slouching deforms your ligaments2


The very act of sitting puts added pressure on your spine and compresses the disks that make up your back. So when the posture breaks down, it causes many spinal problems2

FightsSitting Disease

Standing more helps combat “Sitting Disease” - a term coined by the scientific community, it’s commonly used when referring to metabolic syndrome and the ill-effects of an overly sedentary lifestyle.

READ MORE

FightsSitting Disease

Standing more helps combat “Sitting Disease” - a term coined by the scientific community, it’s commonly used when referring to metabolic syndrome and the ill-effects of an overly sedentary lifestyle.

15%


Only 15% of people are aware of sitting disease1

12+ hours


The average American spends 12+ hours sitting each day, putting them at risk for sitting disease1

47%


47% of people believe they are at risk for sitting disease1

For a full list of references, click here.

2013 JustStand Wellness Summit: Dr. Genevieve Healy

THE RESEARCH

As society has grown more sedentary, the scientific research community has taken notice and conducted in-depth studies around the implications of prolonged sitting. This growing body of research has found a strong correlation between long periods of sitting and elevated risk of illness or injury. Browse the chart below to review the latest insights and findings around the impacts of sedentary behavior.

Title Publication Authors Setting Intervention Date
Stand-Biased Versus Seated Classrooms and Childhood Obesity: A Randomized Experiment in Texas American Journal of Public Health Wendel ML, Benden ME, Zhao H, and Jeffrey C Classroom Standing desks 2016
Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012 Journal of the American Medical Association Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, and Flegal KM Non-specific N/A 2014
The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance Centers for Disease Control and Prevention N/A Classroom School based activity 2010
Economic impact of moderate‐vigorous physical activity among those with and without established cardiovascular disease: 2012 medical expenditure panel survey Journal of the American Heart Association Valero‐Elizondo J, Salami JA, Osondu CU, Ogunmoroti O, Arrieta A, Spatz ES, Younus A, Rana JS, Virani SS, Blankstein R, Blaha MJ, Veledar E, Nasir K Non-specific Moderate and vigorous activity 2016
Effect of frequent interruptions of prolonged sitting on self-perceived levels of energy, mood, food cravings and cognitive function International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity Bergouignan A, Legget KT, Jong ND, Kealey E, Nikolovski J, Groppel JL, Jordan C, O’Day R, Hill JO, and Bessesen DH Non-specific Moderate activity 2016
Causes of death associated with prolonged TV viewing American Journal of Preventive Medicine Keadle SK PhD, Moore SC, PhD, Sampson JN, PhD, Xiao Q, PhD, Albanes D, MD, and Matthews CE, PhD Home N/A 2015
Causal assessment of occupational standing or walking and low back pain: results of a systematic review The Spine Journal Roffey DM, Wai EK, Bishop P, and Kwon BK, and Dagenais S Office N/A 2010
Breaking up workplace sitting time with intermittent standing bouts improves fatigue and musculoskeletal discomfort in overweight/obese office workers Occupational and Environmental Medicine Thorp AA, Kingwell BA, Owen N, and Dunstan DW Office Sit-stand desks 2014
Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus Nature Neuroscience van Praag H, Kempermann G, and Gage F H Non-specific N/A 1999
Exercise physiology versus inactivity physiology: an essential concept for understanding lipoprotein lipase regulation Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews Hamilton MT, Hamilton DG, and Zderic TW Non-specific N/A 2004
Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks World Health Organization Mathers C, Stevens G, and Mascarenhas M Non-specific N/A 2009
Increased cardiometabolic risk is associated with increased TV viewing time Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine Wijndaele K, Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Barnett AG, Salmon J, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ, and Owen N Home N/A 2010
Physical exercise and executive functions in preadolescent children, adolescents and young adults: a meta-analysis British Journal of Sports Medicine Verburgh L, Konigs M, Scherder E J A, and Oosterlaan J Office Sit-stand desks 2012
Television viewing time and reduced life expectancy: a life table analysis British Journal of Sports Medicine Veerman JK, Healy GN, Cobiac LJ, VosT, Winkler EAH, Owen N, and Dunstan DW Home N/A 2012
The frequency of osteogenic activities and the pattern of intermittence between periods of physical activity and sedentary behaviour affects bone mineral content: the cross-sectional NHANES study BMC Public Health Chastin SFM, Mandrichenko O, and Skelton DA Non-specific N/A 2014
Replacing sitting time with standing or stepping: associations with cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers European Heart Journal Healy GN, Winkler EA, Owen N, Anuradha S, and Dunstan DW Non-specific N/A 2015
Impact of prolonged sitting on vascular function in young girls Experimental Psychology McManus AM, Ainslie PN, Green DJ, Simair RG, Smith K, and Lewis N Non-specific Moderate activity 2015
Effects of interrupting children's sedentary behaviors with activity on metabolic function: a randomized trial Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Belcher BR, Berrigan D, Papachristopoulou A, Brady SM, Bernstein SB, Brychta RJ, Hattenbach JD, Tigner IL, Courville AB, Drinkard BE, Smith KP, Rosing DR, Wolters PL, Chen KY, and Yanovski JA Non-specific Walking 2015
Mortality benefits for replacing sitting time with different physical activities Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise Matthews CE, Moore SC, Sampson J, Blair A, Xiao Q, Keadle SK, Hollenbeck A, and Park Y Non-specific N/A 2015
Watching television and risk of mortality from pulmonary embolism among Japanese men and women Circulation Shirakawa T, Iso H, Yamagishi K, Yatsuya H, Tanabe N, Ikehara S, Ukawa S, and Tamakoshi A Non-specific N/A 2016
Sedentary lifestyle and state variation in coronary heart disease mortality Public Health Reports K K Yeager, R F Anda, C A Macera, R S Donehoo, and E D Eaker Non-specific N/A 1995
Appraisal of risk factors for stroke in Nigerian Africans - a prospective case - control study African Journal of Neurological Sciences Amu E, Ogunrin O, and Danesi M Non-specific N/A 2005
Role of low energy expenditure and sitting in obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease American Diabetes Association Hamilton MT, Hamilton DG and Zderic TW Non-specific N/A 2007
Amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors in the United States, 2003–2004 American Journal of Epidemiology Matthews CE, Chen KY, Freedson PS, Buchowski MJ, Beech BM, Pate RR, and Troiano RP Non-specific Activity monitor 2008
Sedentary behaviors increase risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in men Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise Warren TY, Barry V, Hooker SP, Sui X, Church TS, and Blair SN Home N/A 2010
Television viewing time and mortality Circulation Dunstan DW, Barr ELM, Healy GN, Salmon J, Shaw JE, Balkau B, Magliano DJ, Cameron AJ, Zimmet PZ, and Owen N Home N/A 2010
Health risks, correlates, and interventions to reduce sedentary behavior in young people American Journal of Preventive Medicine Salmon J, Tremblay MS, Marshall SJ, and Hume C Home N/A 2011
Long-term sedentary work and the risk of subsite-specific colorectal cancer American Journal of Epidemiology Boyle T, Fritschi L, Heyworth J, and Bull F Non-specific N/A 2011
Television viewing and risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality The JAMA Network Anders G, MPH, MSc; Frank B. and Hu, MD, PhD Home N/A 2011
Association of sedentary behaviour with metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis PLOS One Edwardson CL, Gorely T, Davies MJ, Gray LJ, Khunti K, Wilmot KG, Yates T, and Biddle SJH Non-specific N/A 2012
Too little exercise and too much sitting: inactivity physiology and the need for new recommendations on sedentary behavior Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports Hamilton MT, Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Zderic TW, Owen N Non-specific N/A 2008
Deleterious associations of sitting time and television viewing time with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers American Diabetes Association Thorp AA, Owen N, Healy GN, Clark BK, Salmon J, Ball K, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ, Dunstan DW Home N/A 2009
Prolonged sedentary time and physical activity in workplace and non-work contexts: a cross-sectional study of office, customer service and call centre employees International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity Thorp AA, Owen N, Healy GN, Winkler EA, Gardiner PA, Clark BK, Dunstan DW Office Accelerometer 2010
Reducing office workers’ sitting time: rationale and study design for the Stand Up Victoria cluster randomized trial BMC Public Health Gardiner PA, Healy GN, Robinson C, Winkler EA, Clark BK, Eakin EG, Owen N, Dunstan DW Office Training 2010
Leisure time spent sitting in relation to total mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults American Journal of Epidemiology Patel AV, Bernstein L, Deka A, Spencer Feigelson H, Campbell PT, Gapstur SM, Colditz GA, Thun MJ Home N/A 2010
Reducing occupational sitting time and improving worker health Centers for Disease Control & Prevention Pronk NP, Katz AS, Lowry M, Payfer JR Office Sit-stand desks (WorkFit) 2011
Impact of stand-biased desks in classrooms on calorie expenditure in children American Journal of Public Health Benden ME, Blake JJ, Wendel ML, Huber JC Classroom Sit-stand desks 2011
Patterns of objectively measured prolonged sedentary time and physical activity at work International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity Thorp AA, Healy GN, Clark BK, Gardiner PA, Winkler EA, Owen N, Dunstan DW Office Accelerometer 2012
Sit-stand workstations: a pilot intervention to reduce office sitting time American Journal of Preventative Medicine Alkihajah TA, Reeves MM, Eakin EG, Winkler EA, Owen N, Healy GN Office Sit-stand desks (WorkFit) 2012
Using stand/sit workstations in classrooms: lessons learned from a pilot study Journal of Public Health Management & Practice Blake JJ, Benden ME, Wendel ML Classroom Sit-stand desks 2012
Minimal intensity physical activity improves insulin action and plasma lipids more than shorter periods of exercise in sedentary subjects PLOS one Duvivier B, Schaper NC, Bremers MA, van Crombrugge G, Menheere P, Kars M, Savelberg H Non-specific Activity schedule 2013
Reducing sitting time in office workers: short-term efficacy of a multicomponent intervention Preventative Medicine Healy GN, Eakin EG, Lamontagne AD, Owen N, EA Winkler, Wiesner G, Gunning L, Neuhaus M, Lawler S, Fjeldsoe BS, Dunstan DW Office Sit-stand desks (WorkFit) 2013
Standing-based office work shows encouraging signs of attenuating post-prandial glycaemic excursion Occupational & Environmental Medicine Buckley J, Morris M, Mellor D, Joseph F Office Sit-stand desks (WorkFit) 2013
Effects of a non-sedentary workspace on information elaboration and group performance SAGE Journals Knight AP, Baer M Classroom Chairs removed 2014
Workplace sitting and height-adjustable workstations, a randomized controlled trial American Journal of Preventive Medicine Neuhaus M, Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Owen N, Eakin EG Office Sit-stand desks (WorkFit) 2014
Iterative development of stand up Australia: multi-component intervention to reduce workplace sitting Journal of Behavioral Nutrition & Physical Activity Neuhaus M, Healy GN, Fjeldsoe BS, Lawler S, Owen N, Dunstan DW, LaMontagne AD, Eakin EG Office Sit-stand desks (WorkFit), training 2014
Avoiding sedentary behavior might lengthen telomeres: secondary outcomes from physical activity in older people British Journal of Sports Medicine Sjögren P, Fisher R, Kallings L, Svenson U, Roos G, Hellénius ML Non-specific Activity schedule 2014
Using sit-stand workstations to decrease sedentary time in office workers Int’l Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health Dutta N, Koepp GA, Stovitz SD, Levine JA, Pereira MA Office Sit-stand desks (WorkFit) 2014
Impact of a stand-biased desk on energy expenditure and physical activity for elementary students Int’l Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health Benden ME, Zhao H, Jeffrey CE, Wendel ML, Blake JJ Classroom Standing desks 2014
Sit, stand, learn: using workplace wellness sit-stand results to improve student behavior and learning American College of Sports Medicine: Health & Fitness Journal Katz A, Mulder B, Pronk N Classroom Sit-stand desks (WorkFit) 2015
Patterns and sustainability of sit-stand workstation use in a typical office workplace International Society of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity Mair JL, Nugent C, Cleland I, Schmitz C, Murphy MH Office Sit-stand desks (WorkFit) 2015
Reducing children’s classroom sitting time using sit-to-stand desks Oxford Journal of Public Health Clemes SA, Barber SE, Bingham DD, Ridgers ND, Fletcher E, Pearson N, Salmon J, Dunstan DW Classroom Sit-stand desks (WorkFit) 2015
Standing up for learning: pilot investigation on neurocognitive benefits of stand-biased desks International Journal of Environmental Research Public Health Mehta RK, Shortz AE, Benden ME Classroom Standing desks 2015
Impact of a sit-stand workstation on chronic low back pain Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine Ognibene GT, Torres W, von Eyben R, Horst KC Office Sit-stand desks (WorkFit) 2016
Classroom standing desks & sedentary behavior: a systematic review American Academy of Pediatrics Minges KE, Chao AM, Irwin ML, Owen N, Park C, Whittemore R, Salmo J Classroom Standing desks 2016
Associations of total amount and patterns of sedentary behaviour with diabetes and metabolic syndrome: The Maastricht Study Diabetologia Garret G, Benden M, Mehta P, Pickens A, Peres C, Zhao H Non-specific Accelerometer 2016
Call center productivity over 6 months following a standing desk intervention IIE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors Garret G, Benden M, Mehta P, Pickens A, Peres C, Zhao H Office Standing desks 2016
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